Basics of Electronics BC - (10 cfu)

Prof. Roberto Menozzi Tel. +39 0521 905832 - Fax. +39 0521 905822
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Prof. Carlo Morandi Tel. 0521.905823 - Fax. 0521 905822
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Providing the students with basic knowledge of the most important semiconductor devices and of analog circuits, with specific focus on linear amplifiers (Part B). Providing deeper insight and complements to the topics dealt with in the introductory courses in Electronics, with an emphasis on analog circuit design (Part C).


Part B

Basics of semiconductor devices
Metals, insulators, semiconductors. Band structure of semiconductors. Intrinsic semiconductors. n and p doping. Drift and diffusion currents. p-n junction diodes: equilibrium, reverse and forward bias; static I-V characteristics; breakdown; capacitive effects; application: half-wave rectifier. Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT): I-V static characteristics; forward-active region and saturation; Safe Operating Area (SOA); capacitive effects; Ebers-Moll model. MOSFET: n-channel enhancement MOSFET; static I-V characteristics; linear region and saturation; dynamic effects; SOA; depletion MOSFET; p-channel MOSFET.
Linear analog circuits
Analog and digital signals. Linearity and linearization. Small-signal equivalent circuits: p-n diode, common-emitter npn BJT, saturated n-channel MOSFET. Linear amplifiers: voltage and current gain, imput and output impedance. Common emitter amplifier: polarization; small-signal analysis; maximum efficiency under class A operation; hints to class AB, B, and C operations. Common-collector amplifier. Common-base amplifier. Hints to multi-stage amplifiers. High-frequency operation of the common-emitter amplifier. Common-source amplifier. BJT differential amplifier. Feedback: effects of negative feedback on first-order systems; Common emitter amplifier with feedback. Stability of systems with a feedback loop. Ideal operational amplifiers and their applications. Hints to the non-idealities of operational amplifiers.

Part C

Circuits with feedback
Block schemes for the representation of linear systems. Positive and negative feedback in amplifiers. Properties of negative feedback. Pointing out feedback in electronic circuits. Operational amplifiers. Stability of feedback circuits. Compensation of op-amp circuits. Non-ideal behavior of op-amps.

Frequency behavior of multi-stage amplifiers
Introduction. Open- and short-circuit time constants analysis.

Large-signal analysis of output stages
Distortion, conversion efficiency, power gain and normalized power handling capability. Class A output stages: common collector/drain, common emitter/source. Stress of output devices (Imax, Vmax).Heat transmission in electronic devices. Safe Operating Area for a device. Definition of class A,B,C and D operation. Class AB and B push-pull operation. Class C operation. Class D operation with resonant load or with wide band signals (PWM).

Introductory considerations about oscillators and multivibrators
Stability of the rest point. Natural frequencies of a linear network. One single rest point, two complex conjugate, positive real part natural frequencies: examples of circuits potentially capable of sustaining quai-sinusoidal oscillations. A single rest point, real positive natural frequencies: astable multivibrator examples. Transient behavior analysis using servo switches. Two stable and one unstable rest points: examples of bistable multivibrators. Examples of monostable multivibrators.

Modalità d'esame

The test is made of a written test and an oral test. Students must pass the written test to be admitted to the oral test. There is a single oral test for Part B and Part C.


Analisi matematica (ABC). Fisica generale (ABC). Elettrotecnica AB. Fondamenti di Elettronica A.

Testi consigliati

R. Menozzi, “Appunti di elettronica: dispositivi ed elettronica analogica lineare,” Pitagora (Part B)
P. R. Gray, R. G. Meyer , “Analog Integrated Circuits,” Mc Graw Hill
Notes provided by the instructor (Part C)

Ultimo aggiornamento: 22-06-2005

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