Basics of Electronics BC - (10 cfu)

Prof. Roberto Menozzi Tel. +39 0521 905832 - Fax. +39 0521 905822
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Prof. Carlo Morandi Tel. 0521.905823 - Fax. 0521 905822
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Providing the students with basic knowledge of electronic analog circuits, with specific focus on linear amplifiers (Part B).
Providing deeper insight and complements to the topics dealt with in the introductory courses in Electronics, with an emphasis on analog circuit design (Part C).


Part B
1) Linearization and small-signal models – Linearity and distortion; linearization; small-signal model of the p-n diode; small-signal model of the common-emitter BJT; small-signal model of the common-source MOSFET.
2) Single-transistor amplifiers at low frequency – Network functions; common-emitter amplifier; common-collector amplifier; common-base amplifier.
3) Frequency-domain analysis of the common-emitter amplifier – Short-circuit current gain; open-circuit voltage gain; capacitive coupling.
4) Two-transistor amplifiers – Common collector – common emitter amplifier; common collector – common collector amplifier; Darlington amplifier; Cascode amplifier.
5) The differential amplifier – Ideal differential amplifier in bipolar technology; offset voltage; common-mode rejection ratio.
6) Ideal operational amplifiers – Feedback; stability of circuits with feedback; circuits with operational amplifiers.
7) Current sources and active loads – Current mirror in bipolar technoogy; Widlar current source; Cascode current source; Wilson current source; common-emitter amplifier with active load; differential amplifier with active load.

Part C
Circuits with feedback
Block schemes for the representation of linear systems. Positive and negative feedback in amplifiers. Properties of negative feedback. Pointing out feedback in electronic circuits. Operational amplifiers. Stability of feedback circuits. Compensation of op-amp circuits. Non-ideal behavior of op-amps.

Frequency behavior of multi-stage amplifiers
Introduction. Open- and short-circuit time constants analysis.

Large-signal analysis of output stages
Distortion, conversion efficiency, power gain and normalized power handling capability. Class A output stages: common collector/drain, common emitter/source. Stress of output devices (Imax, Vmax).Heat transmission in electronic devices. Safe Operating Area for a device. Definition of class A,B,C and D operation. Class AB and B push-pull operation. Class C operation. Class D operation with resonant load or with wide band signals (PWM).

Introductory considerations about oscillators and multivibrators
Stability of the rest point. Natural frequencies of a linear network. One single rest point, two complex conjugate, positive real part natural frequencies: examples of circuits potentially capable of sustaining quai-sinusoidal oscillations. A single rest point, real positive natural frequencies: astable multivibrator examples. Transient behavior analysis using servo switches. Two stable and one unstable rest points: examples of bistable multivibrators. Examples of monostable multivibrators.

Modalità d'esame

The test is made of a written test and an oral test. Students must pass the written test to be admitted to the oral test. There is a single oral test for Part B and Part C.


Analisi matematica (ABC). Fisica generale (ABC). Elettrotecnica AB. Fondamenti di Elettronica A.

Testi consigliati

R. Menozzi, “Appunti di elettronica: dispositivi ed elettronica analogica lineare,” Pitagora (Part B)
P. R. Gray, R. G. Meyer , “Analog Integrated Circuits,” Mc Graw Hill
Notes provided by the instructor (Part C)

Ultimo aggiornamento: 09-10-2007

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