Basics of Electronics BC - (10 cfu)

Prof. Paolo Cova Tel. 0521 905818 - Fax. 0521 905822
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Prof. Carlo Morandi Tel. 0521.905823 - Fax. 0521 905822
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Providing the students with basic knowledge of electronic analog circuits, with specific focus on linear amplifiers (Part B).
Providing deeper insight and complements to the topics dealt with in the introductory courses in Electronics, with an emphasis on analog circuit design (Part C).


Part B
Analog and digital signals. Linearity and linearization. Small-signal equivalent circuits: p-n diode, common-emitter npn BJT, saturated n-channel MOSFET. Linear amplifiers: voltage and current gain, imput and output impedance. Miller effect. Common emitter amplifier: polarization; small-signal analysis; maximum efficiency under class A operation; hints to class AB, B, and C operations. High-frequency operation of the common-emitter amplifier. Common-collector amplifier. Common-base amplifier. Common-source amplifier. Multi-stage amplifiers. Cascode amplifier. Darlington connection. Current mirrors. Active loads. BJT and MOSFET differential amplifiers. Feedback: effects of negative feedback on first-order systems; Common emitter amplifier with feedback. Stability of systems with a feedback loop. Ideal operational amplifiers and their applications. Hints to the non-idealities of operational amplifiers.

Part C
Circuits with feedback
Block schemes for the representation of linear systems. Positive and negative feedback in amplifiers. Properties of negative feedback. Pointing out feedback in electronic circuits. Operational amplifiers. Stability of feedback circuits. Compensation of op-amp circuits. Non-ideal behavior of op-amps.

Frequency behavior of multi-stage amplifiers
Introduction. Open- and short-circuit time constants analysis.

Large-signal analysis of output stages
Distortion, conversion efficiency, power gain and normalized power handling capability. Class A output stages: common collector/drain, common emitter/source. Stress of output devices (Imax, Vmax).Heat transmission in electronic devices. Safe Operating Area for a device. Definition of class A,B,C and D operation. Class AB and B push-pull operation. Class C operation. Class D operation with resonant load or with wide band signals (PWM).

Introductory considerations about oscillators and multivibrators
Stability of the rest point. Natural frequencies of a linear network. One single rest point, two complex conjugate, positive real part natural frequencies: examples of circuits potentially capable of sustaining quai-sinusoidal oscillations. A single rest point, real positive natural frequencies: astable multivibrator examples. Transient behavior analysis using servo switches. Two stable and one unstable rest points: examples of bistable multivibrators. Examples of monostable multivibrators.

Modalità d'esame

The test is made of a written test and an oral test. Students must pass the written test to be admitted to the oral test. There is a single oral test for Part B and Part C.


Analisi matematica (ABC). Fisica generale (ABC). Elettrotecnica AB. Fondamenti di Elettronica A.

Testi consigliati

Part B
- R. Menozzi, "Appunti di elettronica: dispositivi ed elettronica analogica lineare", 2nd ed., Pitagora Editrice Bologna, 2006, ISBN 88-371-1624-1.
- P.R. Gray, R.G. Meyer, “Circuiti integrati analogici”, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, 1994, ISBN 88-386-0702-8.
- P. Cova, "Elettronica analogica - 60 semplici esercizi svolti", Santa Croce, 2003.

Part C
Notes provided by the instructor (Part C)

Testi d'approfondimento

Part B
- R.C. Jaeger, T.N. Blalock, “Microelettronica 1: Elettronica analogica", McGraw-Hill, 2005, ISBN 88-386-6151-0.
- Exercises from previous tests, available on-line.

Ultimo aggiornamento: 08-10-2006

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