( english version )
Hydraulics B ( 5 CFU )
Prof. Sandro Longo
     Tel. 0521.905157 - Fax. 0521.905924           E-mail. sandro.longo@unipr.it

The aim is to extend the basic knowledge in fluid mechanics given in Hydraulics A. In the last part sediment transport and debris flow are introduced as basic preparation for the next specialised courses.

Orifice and weirs. Flow through orifice. Sharp crested weirs. Unsteady flows. Force due to flow through orifice.
Flow in pipes and ducts. Pipe flow with pressure below the atmospheric pressure. Pipe flow with uniform discharge along the path. Cost-oriented planning of pipe systems.
Viscous flow in pipes and ducts. Unsteady flow. Unsteady flows in pipes. Water hammer. Differential equations of unsteady flow. Fast opening or closure of the end valve. Celerity of the perturbation. General analysis of the process. The boundary conditions in hydropower plants and in pumping plants. Equations of Allievi. Solution by graphs. Solution by characteristics. Rigid water column oscillation. Oscillation in a U tube. Piezometric wells. Air chambers.
Open channel flow. Computation of free surface profiles in natural streams. Applications of complex profiles. Flow over a bump. Channel junctions, side weirs and and flow with increasing discharge.
Sediment transport. Introduction. Sediment characteristics. Initiation of sediment motion. Bed load and suspended load. Transport equations. Bed forms. Flow resistance in presence of bed forms.
Debris flow. Rheology of non-Newtonian fluids. Velocity profiles in free surface streams of non-Newtonian fluids. Debris flow classification. Starting, propagation and stopping of debris flow. Forces due to debris flow.

Attività d'esercitazione
Numerical exercitations on: pipe network analysis using Cross method. Water hammer analysis using the chained equations of Allievi and the graphic method. Air chambers. Free surface profile using finite difference. Video projection. Lab: free surface profiles in open channels.

Modalità d'esame
Written and oral examination. Three tests during lecturing substitute the written examination.

Mathematics AB and C, Geometry, Physics AB, Hydraulics A.

Testi consigliati
Citrini, D. e Noseda, G., 1982. Idraulica. Casa Ed. Ambrosiana, Milano, pp x +468.(in italian)
Alfonsi, G. e Orsi, E., 1984. Problemi di Idraulica e Meccanica dei fluidi. Casa Ed. Ambrosiana, Milano, pp 507, ISBN 88 408 0735 7 (in italian)
Da Deppo, L., Datei, C. e Salandin, P., 2000. Sistemazione dei corsi d'acqua. Edizioni Libreria Cortina, Padova, pp. xxiii+795, ISBN 88-7784-215-6 (in italian)
White, F.M., 1999. Fluid Mechanics. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, pp xix+826, ISBN 0-07-116848-6 (in english)
Chow, V. T., 1973. Open channel hydraulics. McGraw-Hill, pp xviii+680, ISBN 0-07-085906-X (in english)

Testi d'approfondimento
Marchi, E. e Rubatta, A., 1981. Meccanica dei fluidi, UTET, Torino, pp xvi+800, ISBN 88 02 03659 4 (in italian)
Ghetti, A., 1996. Idraulica. Edizioni Libreria Cortina, Padova, pp xi+566, ISBN 88 7784 052 8 (in italian)
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