AB Physics ( 9 CFU )
Prof. Fabrizio Cavatorta

Finalità
The lectures (formally grouped into two different modules, A and B) aim to give an appropriate basic knowledge of the important laws ruling the fields of mechanics, thermodynamics, and electrostatics, underlining the connections between classical dynamics and the concepts of work and energy. At the end of the course the student should have reached a knowledge of the fundamental laws, properly applying them to the discussion and to the solution of simple physical problems.

Programma
Module A
Introduction: physical quantities; extensive and intensive quantities; scalars and vectors; geometrical and algebrical representation of vectors and basic vectorial operations; superposition principle. Fundamental properties of the matter: mass, charge, density; mass and charge conservation.
Kinematics: position, displacement, velocity and acceleration as vectors; unidimensional and bidimensional motions; kinematics of the rotational motion; inertial coordinate systems.
Dynamics of a mass particle: force and first Newton’s Principle. External and internal forces and the third Newton’s principle; The second Newton’s law and the free body diagram: systematics of the forces (gravity, normal, elastic force, tension, Coulomb’s force and gravitational force, static and dynamical friction forces); centripetal forces in circular motions; momentum; momentum conservation, impulse, collisions.
Work and energy: work of a force in one dimension; extension to three-dimensions; work in a closed path; central forces and conservative forces; potential energy; relationship between force and potential energy; energy balance in conservative and non-conservative systems; using together the laws of dynamics and the conservation of the mechanical energy; energy conservation in collision phenomena: elastic and inelastic collisions; the concept of mechanical power.
Application of the laws of dynamics and of energy conservation to mass particles rotating around a central axis. Torque; the second Newton’s law in the rotational case: angular momentum; kinetic energy of a rotating mass. The laws of gravitation as applications of the particle dynamics; energy of an orbiting body.
Rigid bodies: center of mass of a rigid body and its properties; motion of a rigid body under the influence of forces and of torques; kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body; the work of a torque, the angular momentum of a rigid body. The relationship between angular momentum and torque; the rolling motion; friction during rolling motion. Statics of rigid bodies.

Module B (part I: thermodynamics)
Introduction to thermodynamics: fluids; pressure and pressure forces; thermodynamical variables and correlated terminology: thermodynamical open, closed, isolated systems, ambient;
Ideal gases: kinetic theory of gases; equipartition of energy
Temperature: thermodynamic equilibrium and zeroth principle of thermodynamics (thermal equilibrium, thermal contact, adiabatic system); temperature, thermometers (thermometric properties), and temperature scales (Kelvin and Celsius); thermal expansion of liquids and solids.
Heat: thermal capacity and specific heat; latent heat; heat transfer mechanisms: conduction, convection and irradiation;
Thermodynamical work: P-V Diagram; heat and work for some thermodynamical trasnformations (isocoric, isobaric, isothermal, adiabatic ideal gas processes)
First principle of thermodynamics: internal energy in simple transformations; Meyer’s relationship between specific heats
Second principle of thermodynamics: heat engines; efficiency of a heat engine, particularly in the case of the Carnot’s engine; absolute scale of temperatures; reversible and irreversible transformations; Entropy as a function of state; calculation of entropy in reversible transformations and in some typical irreversible process in isolated systems. Some concepts about entropy, disorder, probability.

Modulo B (part II: electrostatics)
Introduction: conductors and insulators.
Force and force field: the gravitational and electric field; representation of a field in terms of force lines
Electric fields due to discrete and continue charge distributions; motion of a charge in an electric field; flux of electric field and Gauss theorem. Determining the electric field of symmetrical charge distributions (linear, planar, spherical distributions).
Potential energy and potential: gravitational and electrical potential; equipotential surface; calculation of difference of electrostatic potential in simple cases: uniform field, linear and spherical charge distributions; relationship between field and potential; calculation of electrostatic potential in the case of continuous distributions; potential and electric field in a conductor; potential and electric field for a charge dipole.
Capacitors; capacitance of an isolated conductor; capacitance of a capacitor; energy stored in a capacitor; electric field energy; polarization of insulators; Gauss’ law and electric field in insulators.
Electric current; batteries; current density; Ohm’s law; Joule effect; conductivity, resistivity and resistors; connecting resistors; electromotive force and batteries; Kirchoff’s laws.

Attività d'esercitazione
The theoretical course, which is itself based on suitable examples and offers some introducing physical experiments, is paralleled by a course of exercises and problems, introduced by the official professor along with qualified teachers with top experience (Project IDEA).

Modalità d'esame
Oral examinations follow a written admission test. Students partecipating to activities of project IDEA are offered several tests during the course, allowing the direct access to oral examinations.

Propedeuticità
The knowledge of differential and integral calculus, and of the fundamental equations of analytical geometry are required.

Testi consigliati
R. Serway: “Principi di Fisica II edizione” volume I or single volume. Editore EDISES

Testi d'approfondimento
Halliday, Resnick, Krane “FISICA I” e “FISICAII”, editore CEA MILANO.