( english version )
Hydraulic plant and equipment ( 6 CFU )
Prof. Massimo Ferraresi
     Tel. 0521905951 - Fax. 0521905924           E-mail. massimo.ferraresi@unipr.it

Finalità
In the first part of the Course (analogous to “Hydraulic Structures” 5 CFU before A.Y. 2010) the course presents the basic knowledge about water diversions with and without flow regulation. The main types of dams are rewieved, according to the Regolamento Dighe. Weirs and floodgates are presented. Some basic information is given about fluvial and coastal structures concerning inland and marine navigation.
In the second part (analogous to “Hydraulic Plants” 5 CFU before A.Y. 2010) the course deals with the hydraulic design of hydropower plants, artificial drainage networks and irrigation plants, both pressurized and open-channel.

Programma
PART A: STRUCTURES. Introductory notes. General purpose of hydraulic structures. Water resource concept. Water uses examined in the course: A) Municipal water supply, B) Agricultural supply, C) Industrial (hydropower generation), D) Transport and Navigation.

A-B) Municipal and Agricultural water supply -: 1) Dams and Reservoirs, 2) Diversions and Offtakes, 3) Interceptions
1) Dams and Reservoirs: Regolamento Dighe, stresses over retenrion structures, design criteria, building, management and maintenance of dams. Gravity dams, arch dams, other concrete type dams. Earth dams, rockfill dams.
2) Diversions and offtakes: fixed weirs, movable floodgates,. Piping and heaving, saturated-unsaturated flow in porous media (analytical and empirical solutions). Levees, desilting basins, outlets.
3) Interceptions: spring interception, groundwater withdrawal.
C) Industrial use : hydropower generation : short outline
D) Transport and Navigation
1) Inland navigation : features of inland transport, international treaties on inland navigation. Natural waterways: canalization and regularization of waterways, Fargues laws. Man-made waterways: design criteria and linkage to the natural network. Subsidiary works: locks, canal-bridges, pumping plants.
2) Sea Navigation
Short account on winds, waves, currents, tides. Phenomena of wave motion: breaking, shoaling, rifraction, diffraction, reflection. Ports: piers, wharfs, docks.
PART B: PLANTS. Adduction main pipelines: gravity and lift schemes, hydraulic transients control, charge and compensation basins, oscillatory wells.
Hydropower plants: basic schemes, plants with and without flow regulation, forced pipelines, interception, regulation and security valves, plant project and design.
Hydraulic turbines: definitions, classification and functional features, fundamental equation of hydraulic turbines, similarity and characteristic rounds number, characteristic curves, problems in machine operation.
Hydroelectric power plants: operating programmes, automatic regulations of hydroelectric groups, pressure control and escape velocity of groups.
Irrigation plants: scope and definitions, relationships between soil, climate and crops, field water supply, pressurized and open-channel irrigation networks, watering methods and schemes. Outlines of drainage networks: hydrological references, scope, hydraulic design.

Attività d'esercitazione
STRUCTURES: Four numerical exercises are provided, two of them are compulsory: 1) Stress analysis of a gravity dam, 2) Stress analysis of an arch dam, 3) Regulation analysis for a multi-purpose reservoir, 4) Statistical analysis of river diversion without flow regulation.
PLANTS: Two numerical exercises are provided, both compulsory: 1) mass oscillation computations in hydropower plants, 2) waterhammer computations in hydropower plants. The numerical analyses entail the PC general knowledge and the use of specific tools to be provided by the Course. The exercises should be completed and produced al least 7 days before the final examination, in paper and magnetic form.

Modalità d'esame
In order to take the final examination, the numerical exercises must be produced 7 days in advance.
The examination splits into two parts: A) discussion on exercises and practical test with their computational tools ; B) questions about the course programme in written or verbal form (student’s choice). Instead of part B) students may take written tests during the course, dealing with the main topics of the programme.

Propedeuticità
Hydraulics, Hydrology, Geotechnics, Structural engineering

Testi consigliati
G.Evangelisti : Impianti idroelettrici. Ed. Patron, Voll. 1 and 2
Manuale di Ingegneria Civile. Ed. Zanichelli / Esac , Vol. 1
C.Datei : " Introduzione allo studio delle dighe ; sbarramenti in muratura ", Ed. Cortina, Padova C.Datei : La protezione delle gallerie e delle condotte nei sistemi a pressione. Libreria Cortina, Pd.

Testi d'approfondimento
F.Arredi: Costruzioni Idrauliche, UTET, Voll. 3 and 4
M.Poirée, Ch.Ollier : Irrigation. Ed.Eyrolles, Paris.
 
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