( english version )
Progettazione analogica ( 9 CFU )
Prof. Andrea Boni
     Tel. 0521-905815 - Fax. 0521-905822           E-mail. andrea.boni@unipr.it           Home page. http://ee.unipr.it/~andrea/

The course provides advanced knowledge required for approaching the design of Analog Integrated Circuits in CMOS technologies.
The course is based on lectures (on analog circuit design theory) and practice (analog design lab).

Analog integrated circuits design: main differences and peculiarities with respect to discrete-components design.
Passive components in Silicon technologies (resistors, capacitors and inductors): parasitics and lumped models. MOS transistors: main parasitic effects, minimization of the capacitance at the drain terminal; multi-gate devices.
Process tolerance and component mismatch. Interconnection lines: lumped models. Pad, packaging and bonding: models.
Impact of the process tolerance and mismatch on the analog design: corner analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation.
Behavioral modeling of analog cells with Spectre-HDL.

Design of operational amplifier in CMOS technology
Two-stages opamp: basic and advanced Miller compensation techniques. Analysis of non-dominant poles and zeros in the transfer function of basic amplifier stages: cascode and differential amplifier. Folded-cascode opamp. CMRR and PSRR of two-stages opamp.
High-DC gain opamps: gain boosting technique. Low supply voltage opamps, rail-to-rail input opamps. Output stages. Micro-power opamps.
Differential output opamps: common-mode feedback and stability issues. Simulation techniques.

Design of special analog circuits in CMOS technology
Switched-capacitor circuits: sample-and-hold, amplifier and filters.
Voltage and current references: CMOS bandgap reference.
Ultra low-power CMOS quartz oscillators

Theory of Analog Circuit Simulators
Analog Simulators: Spice, Spectre.
DC-OP analysis and algorithms: Newton-Rapson method. DC-OP issues and problems: continuation methods, initial condition, multiple operating points. Accuracy parameters: reltol, vntol and abstol
Transient analysis: integration methods: Euler, Trapezoidal, Gear2; how integration methods affects the simulation results. Accuracy parameters: lteratio, transient convergence criteria (pointlocal, sigglobal, etc.), maximum time-step.

Analog layout
From schematic to the real circuit: analog layout. Basic techniques aiming at improving matching and minimizing parasitics.
Layout check with professional CAD tool: DRC, Layout-Schematic cross-check, parasitic extraction and post-layout simulation.

Analog Design Lab.
The design lab activity is mandatory to consolidate the theory of the analog IC design.
The design lab is based on several guided projects which help the student to approach the design of analog circuits with professional CAD tools (Cadence).

Modalità d'esame
Oral exam.
To access to the exam, the student must have completed the guided project assigned during the Analog Design Lab. activity.

Testi consigliati
B. Razavi, ``Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits'', Mc Graw Hill
P. E. Allen, D. R. Holdberg , "CMOS Analog Circuit Design", 2nd edition, Oxford University Press
K. S. Kundert, “The Designer's Guide to Spice and Spectre”, Kluwer Academic Publ.

Testi d'approfondimento
A. Hastings, ``The art of Analog Layout’’, Prentice Hall
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