( english version )
Applied geology ( 9 CFU )
Prof. Andrea Segalini
     Tel. 0521.905952 - Fax. 0521.905924           E-mail. andrea.segalini@unipr.it

The aim of the course is to provide the students with the fundamental knowledge of the modern geology, starting from the Planet formation and arriving to the continental drfit theory. The first portion of the course provides the students with the basic knowledge of the “fondamental system” of the Earth, through the study of the genetic process of the various rock formations founded on the planet surface. The second half of the course deals primarily with the general processes that are actiong on the Earth surface, such as water runoff, ice and glaciers, wind etc. Everything, with the purpose of supplying the students of Civil and Environmental Engineering with the basic geological knowledge that will allow them to understand the interaction between human actions and natural environment for both, environmental preservation and social risk reduction.

Formation of a planet
Aspects of geology, Planetary system origin, the Earth as an evolving planet, continental drift theory, the geological time concept, the scientific methodology

Continental drift: the unifying theory
An overview, the plate puzzle; movement velocity of the plates; Geometry of the plates mechanics; lithological associations and plate tectonics; Microplates terrains and tectonics; the big reconstruction; the tectonic engine.

The minerals: “bricks of the rocks”
What are the minerals? Atomic structure of the materials; Chemical reactions; Gain and loss of electrons; Sharing of electrons; The periodic table of elements; Chemical binds; Atomic structure of minerals; the minerals forming rocks; physical properties of minerals; chemical properties of minerals.

The rocks: witnesses of geological processes
Igneus rocks; Sedimentary rocks; Metamorphic rocks, Chemical structure of the rocks; where the rocks can be observed? The lithogenetic cycle.

Igneus rocks
Main type of igneus rocks; origins of magma; the magmatic differentiation; The Bowen reaction series; Types of magmatic intrusions.

Internal Phenomenon: Volcanism
Volcano deposits; Types of eruptions; the global distribution of volcanos; the volcano and the human society.

External Phenomenon: Degradation and erosion
Geological and Geographical factors of the weathering; Chemical alteration; Physical disgregation; the soil as a residual of weathering; the weathering as a source of sediments.

Sediments and sedimentary rocks
The raw material of the sediments: particles and solutions; sediment transportation; sedimentation: the end of the trip; Diagenesis and lithification; Classification of the sediments and of the sedimentary rocks; Stratification and sedimentary structures; clastic sediments and clastic rocks; Chemical and biochemical sediments and rocks.

Metamorphic rocks
Physical and chemical factors of metamorphism, types of metamorphism, metamorphic structures, regional metamorphism and metamorphic degree; Contact metamorphism, plate tectonic and metamorphism.

Folds, faults and deformations in rocks
On site data analysis, how the rocks are deforming? Folds; how the rocks are breaking? Faults; reconstruction of the geological history; influence of the deformations on the landscape of the Earth.

The rocks, silent witnesses of the geological history
Earth time and history, Absolute time and chronostratigraphic scale; estimate of the terrestrial processes; an overview of the geological time.

The mass movements
What makes the mass of Earth materials move? Classification of mass movements; catastrophic mass movements.

The hydrogeological cycle and the underground waters
Water flows and reservoirs; Hydrology and climate; Surface flow; underground waters; Water resources from the main acquifers, erosion from the water seepage; water quality; the deep waters; the available waters of the Earth.

The rivers: transportation toward the sea.
How the rivers are flowing? The solid load of the rivers and the movements of particles; erosion of the rocks by water flows; River valleys, riverbeds and alluvial planes; the modification of the rivers with time and distance; River basins and flow nets; deltas: the end of the trip.

The earthquakes
What’s an earthquake? The study of earthquakes; the big picture: earthquakes and plate tectonics; destruction power of earthquakes.

The glacier and the action of the ice
The nature of the ice; what’s a glacier? The balance of a glacier: how it forms, increase and decrease? How the ice moves? The glacial modeling; the permafrost, variation of glacial extensions: the pleistocene glaciations.

The oceans
The boundaries of the sea; coastal dynamics; exploring the ocean bottom; continental limits; continental plate; scarp and continental raise; differences between oceanic and terrestrial geology.

The wind and the deserts
The wind as an air flow; the wind as a transport media, wind erosion; the wind as deposition agent; the desertic landscape and geology.

The evolution of the terrestrial reliefs
Topography, heights and height differences; the relief shapes: physical landscape components; factors controlling the landscape modeling; evolution of the terrestrial reliefs.

Continental crust deformation
Regional tectonic structures; Stable internal regions; Orogenic belts; the Alps; the coastal planes and the continental plate; vertical movements at regional scale;Italian territory geology.

Geological and geomechanical survey
Preliminary study, survey devices, on site observations, relation between different geological formations, geological limits, Geomorphological characters, survey of tectonic structures, survey for applied geology studies

Geology and territorial planning
Planning levels, Risk atlas, PTCP maps, Tematic maps od PRG, Final design, constructive design, lithostratimetric sections, geotechnical model PIAE, Tematic maps of PAE.

Geologica subsurface exploration
The borehole suvey: programming and controllino. Restitution, elaboration and interpretation of stratimetric data. The penetrometric tests, Construction of stratigraphic profiles and geotechnical models. Geophisical survey: local seismic response, Seismic prospection on surface. Seismic prospection in boreholes (down hole, cross hole, tomography). Characterization of soils related to the new seismic regulations.

Hydrogeology and vulnerabilità
Water table restituition, hydrogeological maps, analisys of piezometric surface, definition of startum regimen, The hydrogeological vulnerabilità: methodology for the definition of the vunerability and mapping. Rappresentazione delle falde, tipi di carte idrogeologiche. Analisi della morfologia della superficie

The roads
The construction of road embankments and trenchs; stability of the embankments and verification of settlements, qualification of construction materials, stability of scarps, road foundation. Reinforcement of road foundation and scarps.

The dynamics of natural slopes
Naming and definitions of landslides. Superface and in depth controls, the geomorphological risk, Hazard, Esposition, vulnerabilità. Evaluation of landslide hazard, Prevision, prevention and mitigation of landslide risk. The geomorphological and stability mapping. Methodology for the drainage and consolidation of natural slopes.

Stabilization interventions on slopes
Introduction. Intervention to reduce the mobilized shear strenght, intervention to increase the shear strength of the materials, Stabilization of slopes subjected to rock fall and toppling.

Undergroung excavations
Shallow and deep tunneling. Natural and artificial galleries, Geological and hydrogeological surveys for the choice of the layout. Geological and geotechnical problems arising during excavation. Design techniques and solutions.

Dams and fluvial embankments
Geomorphological study of the foundation of a soil dam. The research of materials for the construction and their qualification. The various types of soil dams.

Consolidation techniques
Bettering interventions for rocks and soils. Conservative measures.

Attività d'esercitazione
During the course some excercises or excursions are planned.

Modalità d'esame
The exame will be carried out as an oral examination.


Testi consigliati
Press F., Siever R. – Capire la terra – Ed. Italiana a cura di Lupia Palmieri E., Parlotto M. – Zanichelli Edizioni
Laura Scesi, Monica Papini, Paola Gattinoni – Geologia Applicata - Il rilevamento geologico-tecnico – Casa Editrice Ambrosiana - Milano.
Massimo Civita -Idrogeologia Applicata e Ambientale – Casa Editrice Ambrosiana - Milano
Luis I. Gonzalez de Vallejo – Geoigegneria – Pearson-Prentice Hall Italia - Milano.

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