( english version )
Complementi di idraulica ( 9 CFU )
Prof. Sandro Longo
     Tel. 0521.905157 - Fax. 0521.905924           E-mail. sandro.longo@unipr.it

The aim is to extend the basic knowledge in fluid mechanics given in Hydraulics A. In the last part sediment transport and debris flow are introduced as basic preparation for the next specialised courses.

Orifice and weirs. Flow through orifice. Sharp crested weirs. Unsteady flows. Force due to flow through orifice.
Flow in pipes and ducts. Pipe flow with pressure below the atmospheric pressure. Pipe flow with uniform discharge along the path. Cost-oriented planning of pipe systems.
Viscous flow in pipes and ducts. Unsteady flow. Unsteady flows in pipes. Water hammer. Differential equations of unsteady flow. Fast opening or closure of the end valve. Celerity of the perturbation. General analysis of the process. The boundary conditions in hydropower plants and in pumping plants. Equations of Allievi. Solution by graphs. Solution by characteristics. Rigid water column oscillation. Oscillation in a U tube. Piezometric wells. Air chambers.
Open channel flow. Computation of free surface profiles in natural streams. Applications of complex profiles. Flow over a bump. Channel junctions, side weirs and and flow with increasing discharge.
Sediment transport. Introduction. Sediment characteristics. Initiation of sediment motion. Bed load and suspended load. Transport equations. Bed forms. Flow resistance in presence of bed forms.
Gravity waves. Wind waves in the sea. Directional and frequency energy spectrum. Wind and waves forecast in the short and in the long term. Risk analysis. Irregular waves propagation in the surf and swash zone. Numerical modeling: refraction, diffraction, shoaling, breaking. Waves in closed or partially closed basins: residual wave analysis. Littoral currents, in the cross section and parallel to the beach. Sediment transport.

Modalità d'esame
Written and oral examination. Three tests during lecturing substitute the written examination.

Mathematics AB and C, Geometry, Physics AB, Hydraulics A.

Testi consigliati
Citrini, D. e Noseda, G., 1982. Idraulica. Casa Ed. Ambrosiana, Milano, pp x +468.(in italian)
Longo, S. e Tanda, M.G., 2009. Esercizi di Idraulica e di Meccanica dei Fluidi. Springer & Verlag Italia, Collana UNITEXT Ingegneria, ISBN 978-88-470-1347-6, V+386 pp.
Alfonsi, G. e Orsi, E., 1984. Problemi di Idraulica e Meccanica dei fluidi. Casa Ed. Ambrosiana, Milano, pp 507, ISBN 88 408 0735 7 (in italian)
Da Deppo, L., Datei, C. e Salandin, P., 2000. Sistemazione dei corsi d'acqua. Edizioni Libreria Cortina, Padova, pp. xxiii+795, ISBN 88-7784-215-6 (in italian)
White, F.M., 1999. Fluid Mechanics. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, pp xix+826, ISBN 0-07-116848-6 (in english)
Chow, V. T., 1973. Open channel hydraulics. McGraw-Hill, pp xviii+680, ISBN 0-07-085906-X (in english)

Testi d'approfondimento
Marchi, E. e Rubatta, A., 1981. Meccanica dei fluidi, UTET, Torino, pp xvi+800, ISBN 88 02 03659 4 (in italian)
Ghetti, A., 1996. Idraulica. Edizioni Libreria Cortina, Padova, pp xi+566, ISBN 88 7784 052 8 (in italian)
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