( english version )
Progettazione analogica VLSI e a Radio-frequenza ( 10 CFU )
Prof. Andrea Boni
     Tel. 0521-905815 - Fax. 0521-905822           E-mail. andrea.boni@unipr.it           Home page. http://ee.unipr.it/~andrea/

The course provides advanced knowledge required for approaching the design of Analog Integrated Circuits and RF circuits (with bothMMIC or RFIC techniques).

www page del corso: http://corsi.unipr.it/courses/AVLSIRF/index.php

Analog IC design

Analog integrated circuits design: main differences and peculiarities with respect to discrete-components design.
Passive components in Silicon technologies (resistors, capacitors and inductors): parasitics and lumped models. MOS transistors: main parasitic effects, minimization of the capacitance at the drain terminal; multi-gate devices.
Process tolerance and component mismatch. Interconnection lines: lumped models. Pad, packaging and bonding: models.
Impact of the process tolerance and mismatch on the analog design: corner analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation.
Behavioral modeling of analog cells with Spectre-HDL.

Design of operational amplifier in CMOS technology
Two-stages opamp: basic and advanced Miller compensation techniques. Analysis of non-dominant poles and zeros in the transfer function of basic amplifier stages: cascode and differential amplifier. Folded-cascode opamp. CMRR and PSRR of two-stages opamp.
High-DC gain opamps: gain boosting technique. Low supply voltage opamps, rail-to-rail input opamps. Output stages. Micro-power opamps.
Differential output opamps: common-mode feedback and stability issues. Simulation techniques.

Design of special analog circuits in CMOS technology
Switched-capacitor circuits: sample-and-hold, amplifier and filters.
Voltage and current references: CMOS bandgap reference.

Theory of Analog Circuit Simulators
Analog Simulators: Spice, Spectre.
DC-OP analysis and algorithms: Newton-Rapson method. DC-OP issues and problems: continuation methods, initial condition, multiple operating points. Accuracy parameters: reltol, vntol and abstol
Transient analysis: integration methods: Euler, Trapezoidal, Gear2; how integration methods affects the simulation results. Accuracy parameters: lteratio, transient convergence criteria (pointlocal, sigglobal, etc.), maximum time-step.

Design activity
Design of an analog circuit in CMOS technology (opamp, bandgap reference, etc.) using Cadence as CAD framework and Spectre as Simulator.


Transceivers’ architectures and RF basics
Black box schematic of an RF transceiver; non linearity issues: desensitization, cross-modulation, CP and IIP3, cascaded of non-linearity; noise issue: NF. Receiver sensitivity, selectivity and dynamic range. Super-heterodyne receiver: architecture, advantages and issues. Homodyne receiver: architecture, advantages and issues. Image-rejection receivers: Hartley and Weaver solutions. Transmitter’s ACP. Transmitter architectures: direct-conversion and double conversion: advantages and issues..

Noise, power and line matching. Matching networks: using discrete components or microstrip. Stub: single and double stub matching techniques. Using the Smith chart in the design of the matching networks.

LNA (Low Noise Amplifier)
Gain consideration: power gain, transducer power gain and available power gain; Noise consideration. Stability consideration. Constant gain, noise and stability circles. Amplifier design: optimizing for power and noise. Design of integrated LNA.

Mixer spec.s. Design of single transistor mixers. Integrated mixers.

Design of RF VCO. Phase noise and tuning range.

Simulation techniques
Harmonic-balance and SpectreRF.

CAD laboratory
Design and simulation of RF blocks (mixer, lna, VCO) using ADS.

Modalità d'esame
The exam is based on the completion of the assigned designs: design report and cadence database for the Analog IC design part and report on the design Activity with ADS for the RF Electronics part have to be provided to the Professor before accessing to the exam; oral discussion on both part (Analog VLSI and RF Electronics).
If preferred, oral discussion may be split in two part: Analog IC design and RF Electronics.

Testi consigliati
B. Razavi, ``Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits'', Mc Graw Hill
P. E. Allen, D. R. Holdberg , "CMOS Analog Circuit Design", 2nd edition, Oxford University Press
K. S. Kundert, “The Designer's Guide to Spice and Spectre”, Kluwer Academic Publ.
B. Razavi, “RF Microelectronics”, Prentice-Hall.
David M. Pozar, “Microwave Engineering, 2nd edition”, Wiley

Testi d'approfondimento
A. Hastings, ``The art of Analog Layout’’, Prentice Hall
T. H. Lee ``The design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits'', Cambridge University Press
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