( english version )
Chemistry ( 9 CFU )
Prof. Claudia Graiff
     Tel. 0521.905428 - Fax. 0521.905557           E-mail. claudia.graiff@unipr.it

Finalità
Give a chemical insight for the understanding of natural phenomena. Teach the students the importance of chemistry in every days life. Give a basic and solid knowledge of fundamental chemistry, presenting clearly lots of topics of interest. Teach the students to critically think and solve problems

Programma
Fundamental laws of chemistry. Chemical reactions. Mass relationships in chemical reactions. Reactions in water solution. Atomic structure. Basics of atomic theory. Electromagnetic waves. Atomic spectra. Quantized energy. The Bohr atom. Protons, neutrons and electrons. The quantomechanic atom. Orbitals and their energies. Electronic configurations of elements. Pauli’s principle. Hund’s rule. The aufbau principle. Periodic system of the elements. Periodic properties. Electronegativity. Metals, non metals, metalloids. Oxides, acids, bases, salts. Inorganic nomenclature. Chemical bond. Ionic bond. Covalent bond. Molecular geometry. Structural formulas. Exceptions to the octet rule. VSEPR theory. Hybrid orbitals. Bond in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Valence Bond theory (VB). Ionic-covalent resonance. LCAO-MO theory. Intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bond. The behaviour of gases. The ideal gas law. Gaseous mixtures. The kinetic molecular theory of gases. Real gases. Liquefaction of gases. The properties of liquids. Vapor pressure of liquids. Phase diagram of one component systems. Phases rule. Boiling and melting points. The properties of solids. Crystal lattices. Symmetry. Unit cells and crystal systems. Crystal packing. Ionic crystals. Covalent crystals. Molecular crystals. Metal crystals and metal bond. Solutions. Concentration. Raoult's law. Colligative properties. Chemical thermodynamics. First principle of thermodynamics. Thermochemistry. Hess's law. Standard enthalpy of formation. Enthalpy of reaction. Combustions. Second principle of thermodynamics. Third principle and absolute entropy. Entropy variation in chemical reactions. Spontaneity of the reactions. Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constant. Chemical equilibrium. Homogeneous equilibria. Le Chatelier-Brown principle. Dependence of equilibrium constants from temperature. Ionic equilibria. Acids and bases. Broensted-Lowry theory. Ionic product of water. pH. Strength of acids and bases. Polyprotic acids. Hydrolysis. Solubility product. Common ion effect. Heterogeneous equilibria.. Electrochemistry. Electrical and chemical energy. Galvanic cells. Daniel cell. Cell potential. Electrode potential. Standard electrode potentials and their applications. Redox reactions. Nernst equation. Corrosion of metals. Common galvanic cells. Accumulators. Electrolysis. Faraday's law. Chemical kinetics. Reaction rate. Specific reaction rate. Reaction order. Influence of temperature. Theory of collisions. Activated complex. Introduction to catalysis. Organic chemistry. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Main functional groups. The earth’s atmosphere. The ozone hole. Greenhouse effect. Acid rain.

Attività d'esercitazione
Exercises about all subjects

Modalità d'esame
Oral discussion

Propedeuticità
None.

Testi consigliati
A. M. Manotti Lanfredi e A. Tiripicchio. Fondamenti di Chimica. Ambrosiana
L. Palmisano e M. Schiavello. Elementi di Chimica. Edises.
P. W. Atkins. Prinicipi di Chimica. Zanichelli

 
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