( english version )
Electronics and instrumentation ( 10 CFU )
Prof. Carlo Morandi
     Tel. 0521.905823 - Fax. 0521 905822           E-mail. carlo.morandi@unipr.it           Home page. http://ee.unipr.it/~morandi/

The course aims at providing an in-depth understanding of the operation of non linear, autonomous circuits such as multivibrators and quasi sinusoidal oscillators.
Then, the design of the analogue signal conditioning chain in electronic instruments is considered.
The final part focuses on noise and filtering techniques for reducing its effects.

Autonomous circuits
Stability of circuits including negative resistances. Large signal analysis, trajectories in the I-V plane, limit cycle oscillations. Application to the analysis of astable, monostable and bi-stable circuits.
Quasi-sinusoidal oscillators: analysis by the describing function method. LC and RC oscillators. Stability of oscillation amplitude and frequency, quartz oscillators. Three points oscillators (Colpitts, Hartley,...)

Analogue signal conditioning
The main functional blocks in a data acquisition and processing system.

Linear amplifiers.
A deeper insight of operational amplifiers. OTA and trans-impedance amplifiers. Electrometric amplifiers, instrumentation amplifiers, isolation amplifiers.

Non-linear processing.
Log-antilog amplifiers. The Gilbert cell. Analogue multipliers and their application in true rms measurements.

Voltage and current references
Zener, Vbe, Vth and band-gap references. Implementations in bipolar and CMOS technologies.

Sample and hold circuits.
D/A and A/D converters.
D/A’s based on resistive weighting: binary weighting, block-binary weighting, direct and inverse R-2R networks.Capacitive weighting: binary weighting, serial conversion.
Complements on A/D converter:over-sampling converters, delta-sigma converters, high speed converters.

Phase Locked Loops
Phase detection, VCO, linear PLL analysis in the phase domain. Type and order of the PLL. Steady state errors and tracking characteristics.

Noise and filtering
Physical origins of noise: Johnson, shot, 1/f.Equivalent representations of a noisy two-port. Noise figure of an amplifier. Noise matching.Phase noise in oscillators.
Techniques for S/N improvement. Continuous time filters. Discrete time filters. Linear, time-varying filters for S/N improvement.

Attività d'esercitazione
Simple exercises are solved during the lectures. Homework.

Modalità d'esame
Homework (1/4), assignment (1/4), oral examination (1/2)

Fondamenti di Elettronica A, Fondamenti di Elettronica BC

Testi consigliati
P.U.Calzolari, S.Graffi. Elementi di Elettronica, Zanichelli Editore.
Lecture notes

Testi d'approfondimento
T.H.Lee The design of CMOS RF integrated circuits Cambridge U.P.
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