( english version )
Chemistry ( 9 CFU )
Prof. Angiola Villa
     Tel. +39.0521.90.5591 - Fax. +39.0521.90.5595           E-mail. angiola.villa@unipr.it

Finalità
Give a chemical insight for the understanding of natural phenomena.
Teach the students the importance of chemistry in every days life.
Give a basic and solid knowledge of fundamental chemistry, presenting clearly lots of topics of interest.
Teach the students to critically think and solve problems.

Programma
Chemical reactions and mass relationships.
Basics of atomic theory. Electromagnetic waves. Atomic spectra. Quantized energy. The Bohr atom. Protons, neutrons and electrons.
Quantum numbers. Orbitals and their energies. Electronic configurations of elements. Pauli’s principle. Hund’s rule. The aufbau principle. Periodic system of the elements: Atomic radius. Ionization potential. Electronic affinity. Metals, non metals, metalloids. Oxides, acids, bases, salts. Inorganic nomenclature. Stoichiometry.
Bond energy. Ionic bond. Covalent bond. Molecular geometry. Structural formulas. Exceptions to the octet rule. VSEPR theory. Hybrid orbitals. Bond in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Valence Bond theory (VB). Ionic-covalent resonance. Electronegativity. Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals: Molecular Orbitals theory (LCAO-MO). Intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bond.
Properties of gases. The ideal gas law and its applications. Gaseous mixtures. The kinetic molecular theory of gases. Real gases.
The properties of liquids. Vapor pressure of liquids. Vaporization enthalpy. Phase diagram of one component systems. Phases rule. Boiling and melting points. Vapor pressure of solids.
The properties of solids. Crystal lattices. Symmetry. Unit cells and crystal systems. Crystal packing. Ionic crystals. Covalent crystals. Molecular crystals. Metal crystals and metal bond.
Nature of solutions. Different ways of defining concentration. Ideal solutions: Raoult's law. Real solutions. Colligative properties of solutions.
First principle of thermodynamics. Thermochemistry. Hess's law. Standard enthalpy of formation. Enthalpy of reaction. Combustions. Enthalpy and second principle of thermodynamics. Third principle and absolute entropy. Entropy variation in chemical reactions. Spontaneity of the reactions. Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constant.
Homogeneous equilibria. Mass action law and its applications. Le Chatelier-Brown principle. Dependence of equilibrium constants from temperature. Industrial applications of the chemical equilibrium.
Nature of acids and bases. Broensted-Lowry theory. Ionic product of water. pH. Strength of acids and bases. Polyprotic acids. Applications of Broensted theory: hydrolysis. Solubility product. Industrial application: synthesis of sodium carbonate.
Industrial applications: thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate. Technical relevance of calcium carbonate.
Binary systems. Liquid-liquid systems. liquid-vapour systems. Azeotropic solutions. Phase diagrams. Alloys.
Electrical and chemical energy. Galvanic cells. Cell potential. Electrode potential. Standard electrode potentials and their applications. Redox reactions. Nerst equation. Corrosion of metals. Common galvanic cells. Accumulators.
Faraday's law. Industrial applications: extraction of aluminium from Bauxite, caustic soda, hydrogen peroxide.
Reaction rate. Specific reaction rate. Reaction order. Reactions of the first and second order. Influence of temperature. Theory of collisions. Activated complex. Introduction to catalysis.
Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Main functional groups. Carbohydrates. Aminoacids. Peptidic bond. Fats and oils. Polymers.
The earth’s atmosphere. The ozone hole. Greenhouse effect. Acid rain.

Attività d'esercitazione
Exercises about all subjects.

Modalità d'esame
Oral examination on the whole program (3-4 questions).

Propedeuticità
None.

Testi consigliati
Angiola Villa. Diapositive di Chimica, UNINOVA Ed.
A. M. Manotti Lanfredi e A. Tiripicchio. Fondamenti di Chimica. Ambrosiana Editrice
Raymond Chang. Welcome to Chemistry . Ed. MacGraw and Hill, 2000

 
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