( in italiano )
Hydraulic infrastructure ( 9 CFU )
Prof. Maria Giovanna Tanda
     Phone: 0521905946 - Fax: 0521905953           E-mail. mariagiovanna.tanda@unipr.it           Home page. http://www.unipr.it/~mtanda7

The course aims to supply the necessary knowledge useful for the design of the most common hydraulic infrastructures that a Civil Engineer meets in the professional experience (aqueducts and urban drainage systems). Each topic is developed both at theoretical approach supplementing, where necessary, hydraulic and hydrology background, and supplying the most suitable, by a technical-economical point of view, design solutions. The application of the design theory and practice is carried on during the practices, where the student has to complete the preliminary design of an aqueduct and a sewer system.

General concepts, water requirements, Needs and their temporal variations. Population forecasts, time prospects of design. General schemes. Division in more networks in case of marked difference in height. Pressure in different working conditions.
Intakes. From springs, from free surface bodies and lakes. Groundwater motion: conductivity, Darcy’s law. Dupuit’s hypothesis. Complete confined wells, uncomplete and phreatic wells. Well construction and screening. Draining trench.
Pipelines. Revision of uniform motion in full pipes. Flow regimes and flow resistance formulas: Moody’s diagram. Check of gravity pipelines: discharge computation for schemes with two and three reservoirs, even in case of summits and sections with free surface motion; working of a pipeline with given input discharge. Design of gravity pipelines: analysis of the route, design of pipes in two reservoir schemes, economic design for schemes with more than two reservoirs, design in case of marked difference in height or summits; working piezometric lines; break manholes, dissipation valves, venting valves, outlets, try parts, special parts. Economic design of pipelines with pumping system; characteristic curve of pumping system, serial and parallel pumping.
Pipes. Materials for pipelines and their characteristics; selection criteria of pipes; junction types, laying and testing of conduits. Accessory devices and valves.
Reservoirs. Main operations of reservoirs; head and extreme reservoirs; piezometric standpipe; design of compensation volume of reservoirs; fire prevention and reserve volume. Management of inadequate storage volumes; modulation of input discharge, stretching thread method. Constructive characteristics of reservoirs: suitable shape, types; command chamber for head and extreme reservoirs.
Distribution networks. Types of network, spatial division of water supply ; sketch of supply. Head losses in pipes with uniform discharge supply. Check of supply networks: Discharge balancing method (Cross) even in case of more head constraints, head balancing method; generalised Newton-Raphson linearisation; cases with complex networks with pumps, valves, etc.

Urban drainage systems
General concepts. Aims, network types (unitary or separated); district and local networks. Technical-economical analysis for the selection of the best solution. Population studies and long-term forecasting. Analysis of civil and industrial users. Plano-altimetric outline of the drainage network.
Estimate of waste sewage. Mean daily annual discharge, discharge of the day with maximum use, minimum flow, maximum flow. First flush water, rain discharges to be treated.
Estimate of storm sewage. Design return period. Hydrology revision: probabilistic investigations on intense rainfalls; rainfall intensity-duration curves; design hyetographs, infiltration capacity and surface detection. Hydrologic models of rainfall-runoff transformation; rational method, travel time and storage method; parameter calibration. Outlines of physically based methods; Kinematic wave on plane surface; free surface unsteady flow equations; transitions.
Design of conduits. Revision on uniform and steady flow. Hydraulic computations of conduits: typical cross sections; reliable slopes and velocities; drum traps; links: jumps, curves, confluence, branches, etc. Sewer washing. Manholes, private entries, venting devices.
Spillways. Spillway role. Constructive characteristics. Outflow discharges and pollution transferred to recipients. Regulations. Lateral spillways: theory and design. Leaping and front weirs (outlines).

Siphons. Constructive sketch; design and hydraulic verification. Cleaning.
Storage reservoirs. Aims and field of application. Design of reservoir with kinematic and storage method. Comparison with physically based methods and historical series. Design sketch and constructive types.
Pipes. Materials and their characteristics, choice criteria.

Laboratory activities
Numerical computations useful for the preliminary design of an urban aqueduct and an urban sewer system.

Examination methods
Written tests (2) on the two subjets of the course and an optional oral exam

Hydraulics strongly recommended

Suggested textbooks
G. BECCIU, A. PAOLETTI: Fondamenti di Costruzioni Idrauliche, Utet, Milano, 2010
M.G. TANDA: Appunti sul dimensionamento delle canalizzazioni di fognatura con cenni di Idrologia, dispense delle lezioni di Infrastrutture Idrauliche, http://lea.unipr.it/
D.CITRINI,G.NOSEDA: "Idraulica", Ambrosiana Ed. Milano, 1990.

Other useful books
G. IPPOLITO: "Costruzioni Idrauliche",Liguori Ed.,Na 1993.
L. DA DEPPO e C. DATEI: "Fognature", Cortina Ed., PD 1997.
V. MILANO: "Acquedotti", Hoepli Ed., Milano, 1996.
AA.VV. "Sistemi di fognatura", Hoepli Ed., Milano, 1997.
A. PAOLETTI: Sistemi di Fognatura e di Drenaggio Urbano, CUSL, Milano, 1996.
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