hydraulics ( 9 CFU )
Prof. Andrea Maranzoni
-           E-mail. andrea.maranzoni@unipr.it

Objectives
The course provides the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics and shows some important practical applications to Civil Engineering.

Program
Fluid properties. A concept of fluid. The fluid as a continuum. Density, compressibility, vapour pressure, viscosity, surface tension. The stress state and the Cauchy theorem.
Fluid statics. Pressure distribution in a fluid at rest. Statics of incompressible and compressible fluids. Manometry. Hydrostatic forces on plane and curves surfaces. Buoyancy and stability. Rigid-body motion.
Fluid kinematics. Lagrangian and Eulerian description of a velocity field. The total derivative. Kinematic analysis of the fluid motion. Flow patterns: pathlines, streamlines and streaklines. The Reynolds transport theorem.
Fundamental of fluid dynamics. Integral and differential analysis. Basic physical laws: the mass conservation equation, the linear momentum equation, the angular momentum equation, the energy equation. Examples: reservoir emptying, computation of dynamic forces.
Frictionless flow. The ideal fluid model. The Euler equation. The Bernoulli theorem and energetic sense. Example: the Pitot-static tube. Flow through orifices; weirs. Power of a flow. Extension of the Bernoulli theorem to a flow. The Venturi meter.
Viscous flow. The viscous fluid model. The Navier-Stokes equations. Analytical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations: the Couette flow between fixed and moving plates, the Hagen-Poiseuille flow.
Pipe flow. Laminar and turbulent regimes. Equations of motion. Continuous and minor losses. Resistance laws. Energy exchange between fluid and hydraulic machinery: pumps and turbines. Depression flows. Systems of ducts. Verification and project problems. Unsteady flows: mass oscillations and waterhammer.
Open-channel flow. Uniform flow: the Chézy formula. Specific energy. The critical state. Subcritical and supercritical flows. Steady gradually varied flow equations in prismatic channel. Hydraulic jump. Plotting longitudinal profiles: examples.

Examination methods
The exam consists of an written part followed by an oral part. In order to gain access to the oral part, it is necessary to pass the written test.

Prerequisites
AnMathematical analysis, Physics, Pure mechanics.

Suggested textbooks
Marchi E., Rubatta A. (1981), Meccanica dei fluidi, UTET, Torino.
Cengel Y. A., Cimbala J. M. (2007), Meccanica dei fluidi, McGraw-Hill, Milano.
Citrini D., Noseda G. (1987), Idraulica, CEA, Milano.

Other useful books
White F. M. (1999), Fluid mechanics, McGraw-Hill, Singapore.
Ghetti A. (1980), Idraulica, Libreria internazionale Cortina, Padova.